Carpet Construction and Texture

Like most fabrics early carpets or rugs were woven from natural materials such as wool and cotton. While Durable these carpets were expensive, out of the reach of the average person.  The invention of the tufting machine made the production of wall-to-wall carpets a reality and made carpeting affordable.

Today tufted carpets consist of yarns “tufted” of pushed through a “primary layer” of polypropylene fabric.  Latex adhesive is then applied on the back of the yarn and a secondary layer is then adhered as backing.  The texture and style of the carpet now depends on the way the looped yarns are treated. In cut piles, plushes, saxonies, and velvets the loops of yarn are cut in the process called shearing. In others, the loops are left or only some are cut or sheared. The four most common styles are described below.

SAXONY PLUSHES: use yarns of two or more ply twisted together and heat-set to lock in “twist” so each tuft is visible in the surface. Saxony plushes work well in most areas of the home and are breat for less formal rooms such as family rooms or dens but they will show footprints more easily than a textured carpet.

LOOP PILE CARPETS: In a loop pile the yarn forms a lop with both ends anchored into the carpet back.  Loops are either of equal height and uncut creating a smooth level surface or uneven creating a textured surface. Most “berber” carpets are loop pile.  Loop carpets resist crushing and matting but are limited in style and selection. With the exception of “berber” style carpets, loops are most commonly found in commercial applications.

CUT AND LOOP PILE:  is a combination of cut and looped yarns that create a variety of textures including sculptured effects. Carpets constructed in this manner are used where texture is desired and where traffic may be heavy such as in family and play rooms.

CUT PILE VELVETS AND PLUSHES: Cut pile velvets have the top of the yarn cut leaving tow individual tufts. There is no twist in the year. This creates a luxurious level surface. Most automobile carpets are a velvet plush.

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